Minute of Angle – or MOA – is a time period which represents a measurement that’s very important in direction of any precision rifle shooter. The truth is, most rifle optics alter their level of purpose utilizing MOA, whereas accuracy potential and trajectory changes additionally use this technique of measurement. Minute of angle will be an amazing idea to know initially, however as soon as correctly understood, it makes issues a complete lot simpler. So what precisely is MOA, and the way is it used within the shooter’s perspective?

Merely put, minute of angle is the time period used as the usual for measuring the accuracy of a rifle, or the adjustment increments of an optic. It’s an angular measurement and never a linear one, whereby 1MOA (or 1 minute) equals 1/sixtieth of a level. A 100 yard/meter distance is mostly used as the usual reference to a MOA measurement, by which 1MOA is the same as a 1.047-inch diameter at 100 yards, or a 29mm diameter at 100 meters – relying on whether or not you utilize the imperial or metric system of models.

In case you haven’t absolutely grasped the idea of MOA simply but, then you’re in all probability slightly baffled. However all hope just isn’t misplaced, so naked with me as we progress by means of this text and attempt to clear issues up.

Minute of Angle Defined

We’ve all heard and seen how an image paints a hundreds phrases, so let’s use one to try to clarify the idea additional.

You must know – as it’s common information – that there are 360 levels in a circle. Inside every diploma, there are 60 minutes, giving us a complete of 21,600 minutes in a full circle. Certainly one of these 21,600 minutes (as seen within the picture above) is our MOA measurement, which equates to precisely 1.047 inches at 100 yards or 29mm at 100 meters. This measurement grows proportionally with vary, as we are able to see within the picture under.

The picture above exhibits a yellow cone that represents 1/sixtieth of a single diploma, or one out of the 21,600 minutes in a full circle.

As the gap out of your firing level grows, so will the diameter of your MOA. It is because – as we have now already talked about – the measurement is angular and NOT linear.

At 100 yards a single MOA can be equal to roughly 1-inch, whereas at 500 yards it will be equal to 5-inches. On the similar time, 1MOA at 10 yards would equal 1/tenth of an inch, or 2.5mm.

At 100 meters a single MOA can be equal to roughly 30mm, whereas at 500 meters it will be equal to 150mm. On the similar time, 1MOA at 10 meters would equal 3mm.

Be aware: the precise imperial measurement for 1MOA at 100 yards is 1.047-inches, whereas the precise metric measurement for 1MOA at 100 meters is 29mm. For ease of use, the determine is rounded as much as 1-inch or 30mm, generally known as a Shooter’s MOA.

Shooter’s MOA – a shooter’s minute of angle, or SMOA, is when the shooter rounds up the MOA for ease of use. 1.047in now turns into 1in, and 29mm now turns into 30mm

A minute of angle measurement goes on for infinity, however as a shooter, we solely actually concern ourselves with MOA out to distances inside our rifle’s working vary (or efficient vary). Because of this we could use MOA to calculate accuracy or changes between let’s say 25 and 500 meters for a carbine, or 100 all the best way as much as 1500 meters for a protracted vary rifle, and additional in some circumstances.

How Does Minute of Angle Relate to Accuracy?

By understanding how a rifle and cartridge performs at 100 yards/meters, it’s potential for a shooter to find out roughly what measurement teams the rifle will shoot inside its efficient vary. This in flip permits the shooter to find out what measurement targets he can hit at a given distance, and finally whether or not a protracted vary shot is achievable or not.

A bunch (or bullet gap grouping) is a sequence of pictures – a minimum of 3 – fired from the identical rifle, on the similar level of purpose, combining all rules of marksmanship to provide a sample on the goal.

This sample (or grouping) determines the rifle’s accuracy potential.

Be aware: when measuring the dimensions of a grouping, the measurement have to be taken utilizing the 2 furthest pictures or the widest unfold, from the centre of every bullet gap.

A 22mm grouping (as seen within the picture above) is equal to roughly 3/4MOA at 100 meters, due to this fact producing sub-MOA accuracy. Sub-MOA accuracy is outlined as a rifle and bullet mixture that’s able to impacting a goal with a number of hits contained in the diameter of a minute of angle. A half-MOA rifle ought to due to this fact obtain groupings which are smaller than the diameter of half-MOA.

Now when you’ve got a rifle that’s able to persistently producing 1MOA groupings, and also you’re questioning in case your bullet can be able to successfully impacting a 30cm metal gong at a distance of – let’s say 800 meters – then you should use your information of MOA to find out the hit potential. At this distance (800 meters), 1MOA is equal to 240mm (30mm at 100 meters multiplied by 8), which falls effectively throughout the diameter of a 30cm (or 300mm) metal gong.

When utilizing MOA to find out accuracy potential, your rifle must be examined over numerous distances to make sure that the MOA functionality nonetheless stays. Why? We this has loads to do with customary deviation and variation in muzzle velocities, or inconsistencies in chamber strain. In case you’d prefer to know extra about this, learn the next article: The Lengthy Vary Results of Muzzle Velocity Variation.

The MOA Sizing Chart under exhibits how the grouping or measurement expands proportionally with distance.

MOA Sizing Chart (Imperial)

Distance (yards)MOA (inches)SMOA (inches)

MOA Sizing Chart (Metric)

Distance (meters)MOA (mm)SMOA (mm)

How Does Minute of Angle Relate to Scopes & Optics?

In the case of rifle scopes and optics, MOA is one in every of two measurement programs used to regulate the scope turrets with a purpose to zero the rifle and compensate for bullet drop and wind drift. The opposite measurement that may be discovered is named MRad (or Milliradian). In case you’d prefer to know extra about MRad, you possibly can learn the next article: Mil vs. MOA – What’s the Distinction?

Turrets generally alter in increments of 1MOA, 1/2MOA, 1/4MOA, and in some circumstances even 1/8MOA. A 1/4MOA turret would require 4-clicks to maneuver the bullet impression 1 full minute of angle. Because of this 4-clicks of an elevation turret will transfer a bullet’s level of impression 1-inch vertically at a distance of 100 yards.

I do know that this idea can take a while to know, so till you perceive how MOA works for each accuracy and scope changes, you possibly can seek advice from the scope adjustment charts under when making changes to your zero.

Increments25 Yards100 Yards
Increments25 Meters100 Meters

Nevertheless, for those who’re utilizing MOA to account for bullet drop, wind drift, and numerous different exterior ballistic elements, you then’ll most certainly want a superb understanding of how MOA works earlier than you’re capable of progress by means of your lengthy vary taking pictures.


Whereas the idea of MOA could also be troublesome to know initially, it does simplify with observe. Additional on-line analysis together with sensible software will go a great distance in understanding the minute of angle and the way it pertains to each scopes and groupings/ precision over numerous distances. So preserve training and you’ll quickly take to the idea of MOA and precision DOPE changes.

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